Special Report: Beat the Tax Law Change by Prepaying State Taxes

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The recently passed tax bill signed by the President is the largest change to the way Americans and businesses are taxed in over 20 years. Starting January 1, 2018 the new rules take effect, but there are several considerations before we retire 2017.

The biggest issues involve the changes to itemizing and the limitations placed on deductions of state and local taxes (SALT).

The First Issue

The standard deduction has been increased while personal exemptions have been eliminated. This means itemizing will be harder to do until the temporary provisions (corporate tax changes are permanent while individual changes are in effect until the end of 2025 where they revert back to the old rules) expire, are extended or made permanent.

People landing in the “zone” could face a modest increase in tax or at least find their itemized deductions of the past worth nothing extra on their tax return. The “zone” is defined as the amounts between the old and new standard deduction. Example: a married couple itemizes $19,000 per year. Under the old law the additional deductions helped reduce their taxes. Under the new law, with exemptions eliminated and the standard deduction $24,000, the value of those expenses in less than the standard deduction and will not lower their tax burden any further.

The Second Issue

The biggest issue is the limitation of SALT to $10,000 annually. Again, considering a married couple, if you are limited to $10,000 in SALT, where do you have enough deductions to itemize? Mortgage interest is a big one, but even that is limited to $750,000 of acquisition indebtedness versus $1 million under the old law, plus a small amount for home equity interest. (You read that right. Home equity interest is no longer deductible on January 1, 2018.) At today’s low interest rates taxpayers in states without high real estate prices will see less opportunity to itemize.

Charitable deductions are an option if you are inclined to contribute. At least the new law allows a deduction for cash contributions of 60% of AGI, up from 50%. Excess contributions to charity are carried forward up to five years, same as with the old law.

Medical deductions are back to the tax law from a few years back where expenses above 7.5% of AGI are allowed.

Some taxpayers will feel real pain from the loss of miscellaneous itemized deductions. Traveling sales people and others with large amounts of unreimbursed employee business expenses will feel the pinch.

Without a large mortgage itemizing gets difficult. And the allowable mortgage interest is curtailed. No matter how you look at it, itemizing will play a smaller role in the future of tax preparation.

2017 Planning Strategy

There is a one-time window to deduct SALT without limitations (with the exception of the alternative minimum tax and phase-out rules).

Many taxpayers will benefit from paying their property taxes before the end of the year (you can thank me later for giving you plenty of notice (I’ll blame it on Congress when you do)).

Since SALT is limited to $10,000 per year starting January 1, 2018, paying property taxes now are an advantage in high tax states.

Also consider paying your 2017 state estimated tax payment due in January before the end of the year. You can also make a 2018 estimated payment (ES) prior to the end of the year. You only need to pay the state ES payments early because only state taxes are deductible as an itemized deduction on the federal return. Pay as much as possible in 2017 for 2018 to maximize the benefit.


The alternative minimum tax (AMT) didn’t go away, but is, ahem, minimized for 2018 and after. Prepaying taxes can cause issues that mitigate the benefits. As a general rule, if you already are paying AMT the strategy I’m outlining may not work. If you aren’t paying AMT on your latest tax returns you might be okay unless you were right at the line. Covering AMT is beyond the scope on this short post. Talk to a tax professional if you have any concerns.

More Good and Bad News

I intentionally avoid business tax issues in this post, opting for advice beneficial to individuals, including year-end strategies.

As mentioned above, AMT is unlikely to be an issue for many taxpayers after 2017 as the exemption amount has been increased to $109,400 for married couples filing jointly and $70,300 for single and head of household filers.

The phase-out of itemized deductions has been suspended until December 31, 2025. Considering all the other limitations individual taxpayers face in the new tax bill, phasing out itemized deductions would be rubbing SALT in a wound. (Yes, I intended that pun.)

529 plans, the college savings accounts, have been expanded. After December 31, 2017 you can withdraw up to $10,000 to cover tuition (and only tuition) expenses for elementary or secondary public, private or religious school. (I want to see the politicians putty knifed off the ceiling a year from now when somebody (perhaps me) publishes the amount of tax avoided to send kids to a Muslim school. These will be interesting times, indeed.)

Personal casualty losses are limited to federally declared disaster areas. Uninsured losses outside declared areas are not deductible under the new law.

Exclusion for qualified moving expenses: Gone.

Exclusion for qualified bicycle commuting reimbursement: Gone. (Mr. Money Mustache will not be happy when he finds out.)

Alimony is still deductible for old divorces, but a divorce finalized starting in 2019 does not allow a tax deduction for alimony. Alimony is not reportable income for divorces starting in 2019 either. (I recently concluded a massive alimony case against the IRS after fighting for two years. We kicked the crap out of Revenue for a very sizable refund for my client. There is an outside chance it’s my fault they included this in the tax bill as a result.) (You know I’m kidding? Right?)

The health insurance mandate is gone in 2019.

The inflation index has been changed to the chained CPI-U. All you need to know about this is that Congress wants a smaller reported inflation number for tax issues so more money gets taxed in the future. Old tax guys like me know why President Reagan introduced indexing to taxes in the first place. Reagan must be turning in his grave!

The child tax credit goes from $1,000 to $2,000 and can be claimed to age 17 instead of age 16. There is also a new $500 temporary tax credit for non-child dependents, like older children and dependent parents. The phase out of the child tax credit has been increased to $400,000 for married filers and $200,000 for singles.

Good news! Student loan interest is still deductible up to $2,500.

Final Notes

Many readers will benefit from paying their property taxes this year instead of the due date in 2018. Making ES payments due in January 2018 in 2017 will avoid the limitations of the new tax bill. You can also make 2018 ES payments in 2017 to take advantage of the old tax rules. (See note below.)

The New York State Tax Department emailed to remind me Governor Cuomo signed an emergency Executive Order allowing payment of 2018 property taxes in full or part in 2017. (See note below.)

We finish with Wisconsin, a weird tax animal if there ever was one. Wisconsin has a $300 property tax credit. If you double up property taxes allowing you to miss a calendar year with a property tax payment you will lose the property tax credit worth up to $300. Wisconsin residents need to consider the property tax credit when planning prepayments of property taxes for federal purposes. (Taxes can be so fun. And crazy.)

For New York you need to contact your tax receiver to determine your property tax payment options.

Wisconsin already has their 2018 ES forms out. Check your state tax department for ES forms.

As you can see, the new tax bill doesn’t do a lot for individual taxpayers. If you are lucky you hit it right and benefit. If your luck is less than reliable you might even see a tax increase. Most individual taxpayers will see only modest reductions in tax liability unless they have a high income.

In the near future I will present additional ideas to optimize personal taxes under the new tax bill. Unfortunately, the best ideas will go to business owners in the new world order.

Then again, if you give me enough time I might figure something out beneficial to all parties involved. There are a lot of holes in the Swiss cheese tax bill.


Note: I no more than hit the publish button and went to work when the IRS issued clarification on pre-paid property taxes. The IRS released a statement saying property taxes may be deductible if they are assessed AND paid in 2017. That means my idea of following the states who were allowing the activity by extending the strategy to estimated payments will not work unless you want to take your chances in Tax Court (not recommended).

Here is a CNBC article on the IRS release.

Personal Capital: You can't manage what you don't know.

Keith Taxguy


  1. Mike at Balanced Dividends on December 27, 2017 at 8:01 am

    Great summary, Keith – thanks. As a neighbor living to your south, I also consider Illinois to be a weird tax animal – albeit, a much crazier (or at least an irresponsible) one.

    Mrs. BD and I currently rent and do not itemize enough, so even the current standard deduction level is what we utilize each year. The nearly doubling of the standard deduction will reinforce that based on our current circumstances.

    On Christmas Day though, my dad said he was spending his next day off (yesterday, 12/26) by visiting the county office to prepay some of his 2018 taxes.

    • Keith Schroeder on December 27, 2017 at 8:09 am

      Ah, yes. My neighbors to the south. If any normal, or at least sane, person wants to take a gander to the twilight zone, might I recommend the viewing of a property tax bill from Cook County.

      • Mike at Balanced Dividends on December 27, 2017 at 9:34 am

        My parents at least live in Lake County – which is NOT Cook AND it borders your great state 🙂

        We live in Chicago, so I’m in no hurry to own right now.

      • Carrie on December 28, 2017 at 7:52 pm

        I’m the owner of one of those infamous Cook County tax bills. Pre-paying my first installment yesterday was the easiest transaction I’ve ever made even with having to deal with both Wells Fargo and the county. I guess when people are willing to give them money early they can get their act together pretty quickly!

        My favorite part of our tax bill is the almost unbelievable if you didn’t know better underfunding of pensions across nearly every taxing district.

  2. Stop Ironing Shirts on December 27, 2017 at 8:03 am

    Those of us in Texas are rushing to try to prepay 2018 property taxes as well. Different counties are opening up their payment portal and I’m crossing my fingers we can get it paid before the first of the year. Expensive land next to big cities and a 2%+ tax rate means people are scrambling.

    Thanks for the great writeup and recap!

    • Keith Schroeder on December 27, 2017 at 8:06 am

      People sometimes forget Texas is a high-tax state because of no income tax. Those property and sales taxes make up the difference, however.

  3. Trevor on December 27, 2017 at 9:20 am

    Can I pay all of my 2018 estimated state tax in 2017 on the ES form or can I only pay a month or a quarter now?

    I contacted my counties property tax office and they told me I cannot pay any 2018 property taxes as they are not yet due. 🙁

    Thanks in advance.


    • Keith Schroeder on December 27, 2017 at 9:27 am

      Trevor, there is some confusion with property taxes. Some states (most) cal the tax bill they just sent you for “2017”, while a few call it your “2018” property tax bill. What I am suggesting is paying the current property tax bill received in December 2017 in December 2017 instead of when due in 2018. If this still doesn’t help I have no additional suggestions.

      As for ES payments, I know of no state limiting your ES payments for 2018. Most states already have vouchers available for printing online. You can pay the entire year if you want. Your personal financial resources and tax situation will dictate how much you pay n 2017. Note: if you make a partial ES payment, your next ES payment isn’t due until you burn through the advance. Example: You expect to owe $1,000 so you make a $500 ES payment in 2017 for 2018. The April 15th and June 15th ES payments are covered; you owe $250 on September 15th and $250 on January 15th 2019 to be considered current. Hope this helps.

      • Bernie on December 27, 2017 at 12:00 pm

        Hi Keith,

        Thanks for the tips. I just called the county tax office and was told they do not accept prepayment of 2018 taxes. I paid the bill I received in November, maybe that really was for 2018? This is in the state of KY.



        • Keith Schroeder on December 27, 2017 at 12:26 pm

          You’re right, Bernie. There i confusion of what is a 2017 or 2018 property tax bill. The one issued a year from now can’t be paid in advance, only the current bill, whether it’s called 2017 or 2018.

      • Trevor on December 27, 2017 at 9:22 pm

        Thanks Keith,

        We are not self employed but have some rental properties and we itemise. Most of our State taxes are owed due to salaried earnings.

        Can I pay a full years estimated state tax now for the salaried earnings in 2018. I am thinking I can then instruct HR to reduce our monthly witholdings which will still result in a refund but I’ll have the taxes paid now so can claim against my fed return.

        Thank you for raising these points, great post.


  4. Erica on December 27, 2017 at 9:30 am

    Thanks a lot Keith! Now I need to decide if we are going to prepay property taxes for 2018. With a paid off mortgage, we would have fallen into standard deduction territory next year with the old code. This could save us a nice chunk of change.

    I’m at least thankful that with the obscene (>3%) property taxes in New Hampshire it might give some pushback to the looming state income tax battle…

  5. Jason@WinningPersonalFinance on December 27, 2017 at 9:38 am

    Already prepaid some of my 2018 NJ property taxes. The estimated taxes is a good tip too. Sharing it with my self employed friends now. Appreciate you putting this together Keith! Happy New Year.

  6. […] January 1, 2018 the new rules take effect, but there are several considerations before… Special Report: Beat the Tax Law Change by Prepaying State Taxes Source: Wealthy […]

  7. ParatrooperJJ on December 27, 2017 at 10:27 am

    Are you sure the 529 expansion to K-12 made it into the final law? I thought that was one of the three issues that were Byrd ruled by the Senate?

    • Keith Schroeder on December 27, 2017 at 10:44 am

      The 529 changes are part of the final bill signed into law.


      • Max on December 27, 2017 at 11:38 am

        Would “elementary or secondary public, private, or religious school” include pre-school tuition, or is that still excluded? Seems like it’s still excluded unfortunately, but appreciate the confirmation.

        • Keith Schroeder on December 27, 2017 at 12:25 pm

          Max, good question and one I avoided mentioning because I do NOT think it would be allowed, but if the IRS includes it in regs it might. I don’t think pre-school will qualify as elementary school. That said, I wonder how many private schools will push the age limits of elementary school?

  8. David Derby, EA on December 27, 2017 at 10:31 am

    Keith, the property tax prepay looks like a great strategy.

    However the way I read it, the law doesn’t let you deduct 2018 *income* taxes for 2017. From the text: “an amount paid in a taxable year beginning before January 1, 2018, with respect to a State or local income tax imposed for a taxable year beginning after December 31, 2017, shall be treated as paid on the last day of the taxable year for which such tax is so imposed.”

    But it looks like paying for Q1 2018 will be applied to the 2018 itemized deductions regardless of being paid early. A way around this might be to estimate your taxes a little high on the final Q4 2017 state estimated tax mailed this week. You could even take some extra pay in 2017 to bump up this year’s state tax bill and lower the 2018 bill.

    • Keith Schroeder on December 27, 2017 at 10:48 am

      I thought of that, David. I believe the regs will clarify that the payment is deductible when paid since most individuals are cash-basis taxpayers and the bill doesn’t require accrual. Prepaying 2017 taxes only means the state refund will end up back as income on the return; The 2018 tax will only apply for ’18 then.

      It’s a less than perfect call, but then again, this is taxes we’re talking about.

  9. Frugal Professor on December 27, 2017 at 11:36 am
  10. Janson on December 27, 2017 at 12:17 pm

    What’s your thought on phasing out deductions? I have always felt our tax system is a nightmare and is like a game that everyone has to play. The powerful play the game well and benefit (paying lower taxes) and the naive play it poorly (pay more than they should by missing tax breaks). The simpler that they can make this, the better. Granted I realize it wont be perfect but at least we are headed in the right direction.

    If only they could act on the recommendations by Nina Olson from the taxpayer advocate service…

    • Keith Schroeder on December 27, 2017 at 12:29 pm

      Janson, easier would be nice, but the new bill is anything but easier. There are more moving parts than ever. The itemization phase-out is gone. . . for now. Remember, the individual changes are temporary and expire December 31, 2025 when we go back to what we have now. So don’t forget the current tax laws; you might just need them again.

      • Janson on December 27, 2017 at 9:29 pm

        Keith I totally believe you. It seems like every time they try and solve an issue, they create 10 more. I just found out about the taxpayer advocacy service and am still blown away taxpayers pay for it but the government doesn’t listen to its recommendations. Their report last year was nothing short of brilliant.

  11. Maria on December 27, 2017 at 2:48 pm

    This is the kind of thing I would like to hear about from my tax consultant in the form of an update or newsletter. I really appreciate you breaking this stuff down. It may actually matter a lot this year for us.

  12. Maria on December 27, 2017 at 3:20 pm

    I’m seeing in other articles that the child tax credit is only for kids under the age of 17 rather than “to age 17 instead of age 16” which to me suggests that a 17 year old could be claimed.

    • Keith Schroeder on December 27, 2017 at 4:26 pm

      Yes, Maria. The child tax credit is extended for one more year of age for the child as well as being increased.

  13. Kimberly on December 27, 2017 at 3:58 pm

    “Washington State law does not allow property taxes to be prepaid” is what I was told after contacting our county treasurers office.

    • Keith Schroeder on December 27, 2017 at 4:23 pm

      Sorry about that, Kimberly. If any reader knows of a listing of every state’s position it’d be helpful. I haven’t found any so we are sharing here piecemeal.

  14. Mick on December 27, 2017 at 6:46 pm

    Thanks for all the great information over several posts on the new tax law.
    I prepaid my entire estimated 2018 property tax, but I am not 100% sure that entire amount will be deductible. The tax office accepted the entire payment, but they only billed for Q1/Q2. I will have to figure that out, but even if only Q1/Q2 count, I still see it as about 12.5% (in the 25% bracket) return on my early payment. I am also almost doubling my regular charitable giving (which I did last year thinking the law would go into effect for 2017–but the giving part is fun).

    I wonder how this will affect charitable donations from middle-income people going forward. It looks like my taxes will still be lower, so it just makes giving easier–no more records to keep, and I can give directly to organizations in other countries or personally. I am optimistic: giving is more than just the tax savings and I believe people will still give.

    • Keith Schroeder on December 27, 2017 at 8:59 pm

      Mick, I did a strikethrough of some text in the post along with a note at the end to include new information released by the IRS today after I published.

      Charitable giving will decline. I agree people should give for altruistic reasons, but some percent do it for the tax benefit only. If fewer can deduct the expense it probably means charities receive fewer donations. I’m revealing a program in Friday’s post to help keep the Pay-it-Forward movement alive. We shouldn’t need a tax break to give, but a tax break does allow us to give more since the IRS doesn’t take their share.

  15. Perry on December 27, 2017 at 8:28 pm

    The IRS issued more guidance on this topic today: https://www.irs.gov/newsroom/irs-advisory-prepaid-real-property-taxes-may-be-deductible-in-2017-if-assessed-and-paid-in-2017

    My property taxes here in IL are weird. There are 9 nine townships in my county that do assessments and these are done in the late Summer. They merely determine the assessed value at which each property is taxed. Then the county along with other taxing bodies (school districts, park districts, etc) determines the tax rate and sends out the bill the following May. This bill is due in 2 installments on June 1 and Sept 1 but it is for the prior year.

    So the guidance by the IRS is still leaving me puzzled. Seems like they’re leaving it up to local tax laws to be more specific with this statement: “State or local law determines whether and when a property tax is assessed, which is generally when the taxpayer becomes liable for the property tax imposed.”

    I can tell you my county is all about collecting the taxes early. They allow you to pay up to 105% of 2016’s bill. I was in line with a few hundred other people today and it only took an hour to pay. I’ve never seen so many people excited to pay property taxes. I bet thousands are going to pay early and in such a high tax area, this could be in the hundreds of millions of dollars collected.

    • Keith Schroeder on December 27, 2017 at 8:53 pm

      Perry, I read the IRS clarification as where IRS regs will go with this. ES payments are no longer worth paying in advance (2018 in 2017), but local taxes are deductible as determined by local laws since local governments assess these taxes. If assessed you can pay them. If assessed and paid in 2017 they are deductible in 2017.

      What troubles me most is this grand idea we are cutting taxes and then working so hard to limit those deductions to the middle class. Irritating at best.

  16. […] cover a wide variety of tax issues that are changing. It will repeat a few facts published here and here […]

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