Your Share of Passive Income

The biggest risk most people have when it come to building wealth is putting all their eggs in one basket. Having one full-time job supplying you with 100% of your income means you are either doing well or in a crisis.

Wealthy people and large corporations have multiple streams of income and continually work to develop more. Sometime the failures are huge. New Coke might be an example. In my practice I’ve had ideas cost serious money go down the toilet. I’ve also had spectacular successes.

Multiple streams of income are the only way to protect your wealth creation program. The same applies when you reach financial independence and decide to retire. All your eggs in one basket is a bad idea. Imagine busting your tail for a decade and having all your money in Enron.

Another problem revolves around active and passive income. Active income comes from work you do yourself. A job or small business is an example. There are only so many hours in a day to sell for income. You can work hard to increase your productivity earning more per hour, but you remain a slave to working for every nickel you earn.

Business owners have an advantage. Once the business begins operations employees become part of the mix. Part of what employees do end up in the owner’s pocket. If it didn’t, why would the own bother with the headache of hiring/having employees. Even though the IRS considers business income ordinary income, there is still a passive nature to the income stream.




Danger, Will Robinson! Danger!

The problem with working for every dollar is risk. If you become ill the income stops. Insurance can provide a backstop, but that is a limited solution you have only minor control over. A business owner can suffer catastrophic loss due to weather or other events. When the business suffers, profits evaporate. The worst case for a business owner is they are forced to choose between closing the business or feeding it to keep it alive.

The solution to these wealth building and preserving risks is diversification. More accurately, diversification into passive forms of income. Whereas, you have only so many hours in a day to trade for income, you have an unlimited ability to create and increase passive income. The best part about passive income is that most sources of such income reproduce automatically.

Mutual fund dividends and capital gains are easily reinvested. Rent can either be used to reduce leverage (mortgage debt) or to buy more properties. Interest breeds more interest.

Without a business your options are limited. Your main source of income is extremely top heavy with wage income. Even a business owner has risks. A handful of clients can make up a large portion of the profits. A large book of clients is a buffer between normalcy and disaster wage earners don’t have the luxury of. However, if you are in the retail music business things might be as bad as or worse than that of a wage earner. CDs and vinyl records don’t have the market they once had prior to digital music on the internet.

Passive Income Sources

There are a thousand sources of passive income. We will only focus on the big four today with an honorable mention to profits in a small business with employees running the place.

Dividends and capital gains are treated favorably by the Tax Code. Rent is considered derived from a passive activity and treated as ordinary income, but income property enjoys depreciation and other tax benefits. Interest is treated as ordinary income, but as we will soon see, a lot of interest is also treated favorably by the Tax Code.

According to Zillow, renters paid $535 billion in rent in 2015 in the United States. And the number is rising. There are about 125 million U.S. households and 43 million households rent. The U.S. also has about 250 million adults (adults, not the entire population).

Some simple math reveals an astounding amount of rent paid by renters/received by landlords. If the $535 billion in rent paid were paid evenly among all U.S. adults it would amount to $2,140! That’s right. Every U.S. adult would receive $2,140 of rent if it were divided evenly. If rent were evenly divided between all households it amounts to $4,280 each for 2015! Since renters probably don’t own income properties we can divide the gross rent paid by the approximately 82 million non-renting households and we get $6,524.

Most people don’t own income property, so the ones that do generate a very large amount of passive income. Of course, rent is not all profit. The mortgage requires servicing, maintenance is ongoing, and property managers need to be paid. Still, this is a staggering amount of passive income many people neglect. (Never mind my reality check on income property versus index funds.)

In the arena of passive income that takes effort is business income which we discussed above. Business income is “earned” for tax purposes. There are instances where it may be considered “unearned” and goes beyond the scope of this post. As mentioned above, a business can distribute massive amounts of money to owners. A manger running the day-to-day operations makes the income passive in reality, if not for tax purposes.




Work-Free Passive Income

When most people think of passive income they usually think of things you do once and then receive a long-term stream of income. Real estate can do just that if you have a good property manager. Real estate lacks diversification unless you invest in a security holding real estate. With a large amount of money you can invest in multiple properties around the nation to avoid regional economic risks. Or you can take on partners to spread risk, but partnerships have risks of their own.

True forms of passive income include dividends and interest. Before you roll your eyes, I want to share the incredible amount of dividends and interest paid out each year.

Before we continue, the statistics I’m using comes from the IRS, one of the most respected institutions of the United States. (Pardon me a moment while choke down that hairball.) There are other sources of information, but all are estimated using different methods of information gathering. The IRS data, while more accurate, is gathered based on reported income. Not all income is reported. However, reporting requirements (Forms 1099-DIV and 1099-INT) make the data reasonably reliable. Some dividends are so small they go unreported and older taxpayers may not have enough income to file. Interest is another animal. Form 1099-INT may be issued to most recipients of interest from banks and other large organizations, but land contracts and other similar devices may go unreported.

With the caveats in place, the IRS lists $254.7 billion in dividends for 2014. That works out to $2037.60 per household. It doesn’t sound like much, but two massive issues are missed here. One, most people have zero dividends, so those who do have a lot, and two, most dividends are paid to retirement funds or other corporations and aren’t included in these numbers.

Let me share a secret from the tax office. Most people have zero dividends to report. A few have a couple dollars to report and even fewer have up to $100 of reportable dividends. Then we get the people who receive real dividends. These folks report $87, 904 in dividends received from their non-qualified accounts alone. This number become more astounding when you realize the total market throws off about a 2% dividend yield. That means the value of their account is worth 50 times as much as the reported dividend!

These are normal people who invested and kept their fingers off it for a very, very long time! There is no big secret. Most never owned a business or inherited a substantial amount of money. They consistently invested with each paycheck and let it ride. Time did the rest.

It sounds like a lot, but a million dollars invested in a broad index fund should generate ~ $20,000 of dividends growing 5 – 7% per year. Starting is the hard part. Even harder is leaving your fingers off it. But for people just smart enough to invest consistently and refuse the temptation to play with their money, thinking they can outsmart the market, will do extremely well.

Interest in retirement accounts face the same issue dividends do. Much interest will not show up in IRS data. We’ll go with it anyway to see how much we can get ourselves.




The IRS reports taxpayers listed $93.9 billion of taxable interest and $62.5 billion of tax-exempt interest. This works out to $751.20 of interest income per household without consideration to interest earned inside retirement accounts and $500 of tax-exempt interest. Considering the low rates of interest today, this means the account values are at least 100 times larger, probably much larger!

Remember, this isn’t all the interest and dividends paid in a year. Corporations, banks and insurance companies earn tremendous amounts of income from these sources and are not included in the amounts. The numbers above are from individual returns only! The real total of passive dividends and interest paid is staggering.

Another difficult number to track is capital gains. The IRS says just over $705 billion in capital gains were reported in 2014. But how large is the amount of unrealized capital gains? It has to easily stretch into the trillion dollar arena!

Not only are you at greater risk when all your eggs are in the wage earning basket, but you get taxed hard.  Wages suffer income tax at ordinary rates, but FICA taxes as well. Rent, dividends, interest and capital gains receive varying degrees of preferential tax treatment when calculating your income tax, but they all avoid the FICA tax.

Remember the $535 billion in rent paid from above? Well, the IRS records show only $75.2 billion was taxed or a bit more than 14%. (Here’s my handkerchief. I know how much it hurts.)

Now I’ll add up the averages in non-qualified (non-retirement) accounts alone. Take the $4,280 of rent you should receive on average (only $1198 of which is taxed) and add $2037.60 in dividends and $751.20 of interest and $500 of tax exempt interest and the $5,640 of realized capital gains and we get $13,208.80.

Again, this seems like a small amount to the average reader of this blog. But these numbers don’t include earnings from retirement accounts. It also doesn’t include we can invest more and take a larger share from corporations, banks and insurance companies.

The real secret is in the value of the underlying accounts which reveals the staggering level of unrealized capital gains. In today’s low interest, low dividend environment, the average household holds north of half a million dollars! That means a lot of people are doing really well considering how many are doing so poorly.

And I never said a word about how much is stored in trust accounts!

Wealth is not a complex process. Consistency is the most important factor. Long-term investments in index funds have enjoyed superior performance historically. The amount of passive income to be had is large enough for everyone to do very well with only an average slice of the pie.

The question now is: Where are you on the scale? Average? Below average? 🙁 Above? 🙂

If you don’t like your level of passive income it might be time to do something about it now that you know where the money is.



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Keith Schroeder

18 Comments

  1. WealthyDoc on November 13, 2017 at 7:51 am

    Here Here.
    Passive and Portfolio income is the way to go.
    I have lots of streams of income, but currently don’t have any residential real estate (I do own commercial).
    I’m thinking of buying a few houses soon. I like the idea of owning something “real.” And the income streams are welcome too.

    • Keith Schroeder on November 13, 2017 at 7:56 am

      I love the safety of multiple income streams, WealthyDoc. There is something comforting about the never ending clatter of money dropping in. Multiple income streams also means you get lots of paychecks coming in every month. Like I said, comforting.

  2. Mike @ Balanced Dividends on November 13, 2017 at 7:58 am

    “The solution to these wealth building and preserving risks is diversification. More accurately, diversification into passive forms of income.”

    Well said, Keith. Thanks for this post. The metrics you shared are also quite interesting. A few comments:

    – Real Estate: agreed there can be a number of great benefits. As you commented in another recent post though, real estate might not always be entirely passive and investors might have extreme risk by investing in a single or only handful of properties. For us, we hold ~99% of our real estate exposure (about 25% of our total net worth) via a REIT Index fund in Roth IRAs (for, among other reasons, diversification, low costs, and tax free returns, etc.).

    -Business Owners: another great point. We’re not there yet ourselves, but the points you highlighted about relying on a single source of income, in general, or being directly dependent on the time spent = money earned model is important. Diversification is key.

    – Work-Free Passive Income: all great points you mentioned. It takes time and a significant amount of capital to begin realizing substantial progress via passive income.

    On your question: where are you on the scale? I’d say average. We recently began averaging +$1,000 in passive income via dividends when looking at our prior 13 month year-over-year data; I’m wrapping up a post on this soon.

    Overall, we’re both surprised and happy with the progress. As you suggested though, it’s time to do something about it; we’re not yet where we want to be on our goals (especially in NON-retirement accounts).

    • Keith Schroeder on November 13, 2017 at 8:39 am

      Time, Mike, time. Dividends keep going up and reinvested dividends pull the curve northward.

      • Mike @ Balanced Dividends on November 13, 2017 at 8:50 pm

        Indeed. Time is key.

        Re: the post I mentioned earlier, I just finished it (after 3 additional hours of editing / reviewing):

        https://www.balanceddividends.com/how-we-got-to-averaging-1000-a-month-in-passive-income/

        Just curious, Keith – on average, how long does it take you to write, edit, and publish a typical post?

        -Mike

        • Keith Schroeder on November 13, 2017 at 10:07 pm

          Mike, there are several facets to the time expended when I write a post. This post, for example, took slightly more time than average because I needed modest research for accurate numbers. I couldn’t find what I really wanted (I wanted verifiable numbers on how many dividends are paid annually in the U.S. All of them. Same with interest. I settled for incomplete IRS numbers when an hour or so of internet searching didn’t provide what I really wanted.)

          Most posts follow a similar pattern. I write the night before about 1,000 words of rough draft per hour. (This is consistent for me. Writing fiction also seems to leave my fingers at about a thousand words an hour in rough.) Most posts are just under 2,000 words so I spend about two hours on the rough draft.

          The next morning I edit by reading the post to Mrs. Accountant. Editing and formatting the post in WordPress takes about an hour to hour and a half.

          What is harder to quantify is the ongoing time spent. I gather information daily for potential posts. I have news magazines and article everywhere. My personal library is fairly large at over 2,000 books. I read The Economist weekly and mark up the magazine for potential future use. I also take pictures when I remember for future use.

          Then there are the very time consuming posts. I have three currently on the burner which are holding me back due to the time requirements. The first is on affordable health care options. I did the research, but need to sew it together in a post. (I’m lying. One option I support and will personally use January 1st, 2018 has an affiliate program I need to sign up for so I’m dragging my feet. I can be such a sellout.) A normal post takes 3 – 4 hours top to bottom max. This post will require about 7.

          The second post in the works I am behind on is the one I promised a while back where you could deduct over a half million in one swoop. The issue here is I’m not 100% on it yet. This is very deep tax strategy. I need to continue my research, write the post, edit, give it to an expert to review (she already volunteered to review and edit the post) and then publish. I will have over 20 hours in that post easy.

          The final post in the queue I desperately want to spank on a page involves climate change and wealth. I’ve read several books on the topic with heavy markup in preparation for the post. I know where the story ends and nobody taking a stand on the climate change issue will be happy, but my research is 100% dead-on. This planned post will be the longest ever published here at an estimated 20,000 words. Without counting the books I’ve read on the subject, I estimate I’ll have over 50 hours in that single post.

          Then again, there is no typical post. Some days the words flow easy and others days they need to be ripped out of my skull one bloody word at a time. Most days I want to write. Sometimes it is a chore as I would prefer a periodic nap. Most posts I’m proud of; others, not so much. I go back and fix some posts. I have one in mind right now I’ll be radically changing soon. Nice thing about the internet is I can edit after it’s been published. That option wasn’t available back when I was growing up. Had to walk uphill to school and back every day, too. How times (and hills) have changed.

          • Mike @ Balanced Dividends on November 13, 2017 at 10:29 pm

            Thanks Keith; I appreciate your thorough response – very helpful. Your pending posts also seem very interesting, too.



          • Matt on November 15, 2017 at 7:01 pm

            This comment was a post in itself! Can’t wait to read your deep tax strategy post. I just found your site (I know – where was I?) so have a lot to dig into here.
            Thanks for sharing your writing process. I write posts that take about 3-6 hours depending on length, graphs, Excel reports, etc. But the funny thing is, the posts that I whip together do as good and a lot of times better from an analytics standpoint. For my site, the Social Security posts get the most shares but they’re some of the easiest to write.



  3. Curt Smith on November 13, 2017 at 8:23 am

    HI Keith, Nice run down on sources of passive income types; bonds, dividends from stocks, rental real estate.

    Circa 2008,9,10, the “made for you by wall street” retirement plan was being evaporated I determined through trial and error that my wife and I had not zero but negative skills at making money in the stock market. IE if you can’t make money off the bottom of the market you can’t make money. Just a personal report card, not saying virtually everyone else who followed the never sell strategy didn’t do well, just that we didn’t. This permanently imprinted upon us that paper assets (anything non-physical where the amount value is controlled by people pressing buttons),,, has too much risk and lack of control for us.

    We bought head long into rentals. Via Self Directed IRA (since moved to solo 401ks), in cash in our name, in our LLCs name etc. Keeping day jobs rolling every nickel into more rentals, some smart debt (at 4%-5%) cash out REFIs to by more rentals. Well in 6 years the monthly cash flow went from zero to $15k +/- (net of expenses). True we traded hard work over 6 yrs plus free cash flow from W2 jobs, plus rolling forward rent incomes but it is possible because we did it, now rain or shine, getting out of bed or not $15k shows up in various accounts every month. Whats the comparison of investing in rentals in a good rental city / state as Atlanta area / GA vs bonds, vs stocks, vs ?? A financial advisor in our REIA calculated mathematical performance advantage of buying rentals in good areas is a multiple of somewhere around 5x over buying top appreciation dividend paying stock.

    Both of us quit our day jobs on our terms and now do other things besides getting into elevators going up to cubicals in glass sided buildings. Whew!!! Just saying,,, for us, had we instead bought bonds, stocks etc, we’d be still working day jobs we would never have been able to accomplish the passive income growth via any other path other than rental real estate. You are correct in a simplistic way, that growing wealth is not complex, but the time to achieving FI financial independence has wildly wide ranging time spans to reaching goals. I suspect though that the date of FI financial independence for folks following “the not complex” path is well past their death. Well,,, meaning it will happen too late to be the support their needs in their non-working years. We decided we wanted a better life and where willing to work hard building our rental portfolio in exchange for 5x acceleration of bringing closer in our FI date, 6 years as it turned out.

    As a tip to others who might want to add rentals to their collection of multiple income streams:

    – Join biggerpockets.com and start reading start showing up at the local meetups.
    – Join all of your local REIAs (real estate investor associations). Google: city name REIA . I choose GaREIA in Atlanta for many reasons.
    – Carve out cash flow from your jobs, savings etc that you’ll use for down payments on rental houses.
    – Learn how to be a landlord at your local REIA, biggerpockets. I do not recommend using property management companies for your first few rentals. You need to know how to manage before you can manage the manager. Besides I self manage 38 rentals, if you buy right, screen right its no effort at all.
    – Read the paper I wrote to help folks, how to buy a bullet proof rental portfolio I uploaded to biggerpockets.com, on the right of my profile Curt Smith in Atlanta…

    Good luck folks on your path to financial independence. Thanks Keith for your contributions and mentioning the passive income path to FI.

    • Keith Schroeder on November 13, 2017 at 8:44 am

      Curt, RE allows for earlier retirement if that is your goal. RE can become your job. If you handle more of the operations (maintenance, management) a small number of properties can get the job done. However, RE isn’t easy. Buying right and managing right are key. Every reader here should read your comment and take it heart. REIAs are everywhere. Locally we just call them apartment associations. Every metro area has one. If you own income properties or are thinking of doing so, REIAs are an incredible resource.

      Curt is right, kind readers. RE is much faster than equities when done correctly. And as much as I warn about RE, I made a pile of $ in the 1990s on RE. At a certain point it was no longer necessary to deal with the hassle so I moved on to easier things.

      • Yaacov on November 14, 2017 at 1:15 am

        Sorry Keith,
        But if you had leveraged into stocks the same way Curt Smith did into RE during the same years he did, you would have accelerated FI by the same factor or more.

    • East Coast on November 13, 2017 at 12:27 pm

      Any chance you could post a link to your paper how to buy a bullet proof rental portfolio? Can’t find it on biggerpockets.com. Thanks.

      • Keith Schroeder on November 13, 2017 at 12:42 pm

        East Coast, I’m not sure which post you’re referring to on biggerpockets.

        Here is a Google search for rental profits on this site. It should help you find what you’re looking for.

        https://www.google.com/search?q=Wealthy+Accountant+rental+profits&oq=Wealthy+Accountant+rental+profits&aqs=chrome..69i57j69i64.7487j0j8&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8

        • East Coast on November 13, 2017 at 8:29 pm

          Hi. I was replying to/asking Curt Smith, he referenced that paper in his comment. But thanks for the google search link.

          • Keith Schroeder on November 13, 2017 at 10:08 pm

            Sorry about that, Coast. It’s hard to follow a comment threat inside WordPress. Continue.



  4. JoeHx on November 21, 2017 at 1:01 pm

    I don’t currently have any real estate investments, and I’m not sure I’ll ever enter that area – I’m afraid of bad tenants taking advantage of my natural generosity – so I’ve been focusing on generating income on areas I’m more familiar with.

    A few of the passive incomes I have are selling t-shirts in print-on-demand sites, such as Teespring. I’ve been most successful with Merch by Amazon, which is Amazon’s POD service that sells directly on Amazon with free Prime shipping.

    I also have my blog, which hasn’t made much money. Plus the normal investments, although I don’t really count anything outside of savings account interest as income for budgeting purposes.

    Finally, I’ve looking into Android development recently as I am a programmer by trade. I don’t have anything on the app store yet.

  5. cecilia on November 21, 2017 at 2:34 pm

    I learned the power of compounding interest unexpectedly. I once sold a money losing stock, but then somehow messed up with the sale date vs div issuance date and it had 0.x stock left from newly issued dividend. A few years later I went into that account again, and realized that I have 1.x share of that money losing stock in my account, and it’s about ~$100 then even though the stock itself was still in the toilet.

    Keith, I have a question for you. If I have consistently saved 50% gross income like you preached, and FIRE is a goal, is there any value in increasing that to 55% gross income (which I can do but that leaves me with very limited discretionary spending) or should I just relax at 50% gross, and put the remaining 5% to enjoying life now. I struggle with making a decision. thanks for your advice.

    • Keith Schroeder on November 21, 2017 at 2:45 pm

      Cecilia, I never held a knife to my throat with saving 50% of my gross income. It was usually more. I always am mindful of spending and this keeps a lot of money flowing to the investment accounts. 50% is a number I pull out of the air as a quasi-floor. Some months you’ll do better and others will not. If the car needs tires the savings rate’ll be lower for a month. The biggest problem today is medical insurance and medical costs. It’s getting harder for even the hardcore guys like me.

      To your question, save at a level you will stick to. Pushing from 50% to 55%, only to feel extra stress and then stop completely, is the wrong plan. Don’t get hung up on percentages. Set goals while remaining pliable. Depending on circumstances, some people can only reasonably save 30% of gross. That’s still an awesome number! Save 50 like you have been and when possible, save more. The need for discretionary money is important.Money should be a tool, not a taskmaster.

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